Part II – Continuous observations


Table 1 below summaries the in situ and remote sensing deployed during BLLAST over the 3 sites, for continuous observation from 14 June to 8 July.
We describe here the deployment of those instruments for the observation of (1) the surface layer processes, (2) boundary layer profiling, (3) sky monitoring, and (4) Aerosol content.

 Super site 1Super site 2Site 3
Instrumented Towers
60 m tower
5 levels
HR, LR wind
HR, LR temperature
HR, LR humidity
Soil moisture
IR Camera
Radiation Divergence
10 m tower
5 levels – radiation
Skin flow
4 levels
HR wind
HR temperature
2 m towers (*#*)
1 level
Soil moisture
30 m tower
HR, LR wind
HR, LR temperature
HR, LR humidity
Surface temperature
probes network
Wind profilers
VHF wind profilerX  
UHF wind profilerXX 
sodarX X
Aerosol LidarXX 
Doppler LidarX  
Humidity Profilers
Full Sky ImageryX  

Table 1 : distribution of the continuous observation over the three sites.

The map below shows the position of the two surface super sites 1&2. Super-site 1 was especially dedicated to a thorough monitoring of the vertical structure, and super-site 2 to the surface heterogeneity study.
Figure 4: Super sites 1 and 2

Super site 1: Thorough vertical monitoring of the first 3 km of the atmosphere

  • « Vertical monitoring » site
  • « 60-m tower » site
  • « Divergence » site
  • « Edge effect » site
  • « Micro-scale surface heterogeneity » site

Figure 5: Location of « Edge effect », « divergence », « 60-m tower » and Micro-scale surface heterogeneity sites on super site 1.

Super site 2: Impact of the surface heterogeneity.

  • « Corn » site
  • « Moor » site
  • « Forest » site

Figure 6: Surface cover types on super site 2, positioning of EC station, remote sensing and extra ground temperature probes.

Sky monitoring

Total sky A full sky camera in site 1 (LA, RAPACE instrument) will take pictures of the entire sky every one min, for qualitative monitoring of the cloud cover. Ceilometer A ceilometer from CRM/GAME will be collocated with the full sky camera, for a quantitative monitoring of the cloud base.

Boundary layer profiling

Wind profilers (sodar, UHF, VHF) At site 1, the combinaison of a sodar (MAG, measuring the wind from 10 m to 300 m a.g.l), UHF profiler (LA, measuring the wind from 200 m to 3000 m a.g.l) and a VHF profiler (LA, measuring the wind from 1.5 km to 16 km a.g.l) is covering the […]

Surface Layer

Turbulence and mean meteorological parameters In the BLLAST experiment, 9 masts will be equipped with a total of 26 instruments measuring turbulence. Measured properties are: wind, temperature, CO2 concentration and water vapour concentration. The first aim of all the stations is to get a clearer picture of the fluxes in the diverse landscape that is […]